a partial reduction only, some aspects of the target phenomenon are emergent. The models themselves reduce only in a derivative sense (a discussion of these and related issues is covered in the entry on reductionism in biology. New Wave reductionists criticized other models, especially Nagel's, for not being adequately sensitive to how reductions are actually carried out, a point also made by Ager, Aronson, and Weingard (1974). Just as in the writings of Smart (1959, 1963 the idea is that the relevant identities are not a priori. Here, mapping-relations play the role derivation is supposed to play on the syntactic interpretation of theories. Another option would consist in giving this a pragmatist reading as in (Van Gulick 1992, 2010 or giving up on the idea that identity is required for (property-)reduction. Identity Reduction is, at the same time, obviously compatible with various sorts of a-priorism.
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French structuralists can be seen as reductionists about subjects, or subjectivism; they suggest that the functioning of individual intentions and goals reduces to code promo naurote the inner workings of larger discourses. Bishop Berkeley's phenomenal idealism reduced ordinary tables and chairs to collections of ideas and denied the existence of matter. And Do current research ethics guidelines accommodate the diversity and complexity of harm reduction research? More recent approaches to reduction depart from or were developed in opposition to the Nagel model (Hooker 1981; Churchland 1985; Schaffner 1993; Bickle 1998, 2003; Dizadji-Bahmani, Frigg, Hartmann 2010; van Riel 2014 though it has been argued that most of these approaches merely echo the. Values-based harm reduction has arrived.
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Scientific Reduction (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
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